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In recent times there has been an increase in the number of bed bug infestations. Bed bugs are common all over the world and have been found in Australia in small numbers. Recently they have become widespread with infestations increasing substantially in Victoria, and most parts of the Earth, over the previous ten decades. .
The main reason for the increase is thought to be due to insecticide resistance; modern bed bugs are exceptionally resilient to many of those commonly used insecticides. Other contributing factors include the increase in world traveling with bed bugs being dispersed in bags, shoes and clothing. Once acquired at large turnover accommodation, the hitchhiking bed bugs may then be transported and brought back to the homes of guests in their luggage.
Many hostels have now banned the use of travellers own sleeping linen in common accommodation for a safety precaution against this insect.
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In early infestations, bed bugs are usually found around the seams, beading and folds of mattresses, sleeping bags and sheets. Since the infestation spreads, the bugs move to any tiny crevices, which may be in bed heads, skirting boards, cracks in plaster and bedroom furniture. Because of their colour, adult bed bugs can easily be spotted with the naked eye on sheets and bedding, but very tough to view on brown wooden floors and other dark surfaces.
Heavily used hiding areas are evident by black or brown stains of blood excrement or spotting. There may be an offensive sweet odour when bed bugs are numerous. This odour described as buggy is similar to the odour when a stink bug is squashed. White eggs, the egg cases and moulted skin cubes may be found near these areas, as well as living bed bugs. .
Bed bugs use pheromones to communicate. This system of communication and also the launch of alarm pheromones can make them quite hard to treat as bed bugs become alert and fast vacate the region being treated if not previously properly quarantined.
Bed bugs can also spread into a new residence by traveling between multi-unit housing such as dormitories and apartment buildings. Once they find a host, bed bugs will feed and are likely to haven in close proximity to the victim. In this case, new locations can quickly become infested with bed bugs in a brief amount of time. .
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Different individuals have varying reactions to the bites of bed bugs, depending on a number of variables. Some people have little or no reaction to the bite. In others the bite site can get red and intensely itchy. This can happen during the course of the night or may take up to 9-14 days to grow.
The wheals can range from 2 cm to 5 cm in diameter with inflammation common. Anaphylactic shock may possibly occur in individuals which are allergic, although this is quite rare. .
Discomfort and reduction of sleep is common in helpful site the effects of bed bugs. Bites may be found on a variety of areas on the entire body. Another characteristic is the bites are sometimes in orderly rows, unlike the random pattern of mosquitoes. These rows are caused by the bed insect being upset during feeding and having to pierce the skin to nourish again.
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Bed bugs mainly feed on humans but will feed on mammals and poultry if necessary. Although they may carry diseases like hepatitis they are not known to transfer these ailments to individuals.
The survival of mattress bug eggs is also an issue. It is not uncommon for the live bed bugs amongst an infestation to be completely eradicated during an effective treatment cycle, only to have the remaining or surviving eggs hatch and populate the exact location once again. The eggs can also have an incubation period of up to two weeks and may be deposited in hidden areas that are tough to deal with. .
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This stubborn tendency of bed bug infestations are made more problematic because of the now smaller size of the newly re-emerged mattress bug nymph. Once an infestation is discovered, all adjoining rooms need to be inspected and handled if additionally influenced.
This can be finished by using adhesive tape (if helpful site insect numbers are extremely small) to trap the insect. Vacuuming is also recommended before substance treatment because it removes all dust and debris from the site of the infestation making it simpler for following chemical control to penetrate and in turn succeed.